Insulin-producing Cells Grown in Lab : Breakthrough

Insulin-producing Cells Grown in Lab : Breakthrough


Scientists have successfully converted human skin cells into functional pancreatic cells, a breakthrough that may lead to a personalised cell therapy for diabeties, ending the need for insulina jobs.

The new cells produced insulin in response to changes in glucose levels and when transplanted into mice, protected the animals from developing diabetes, researchers said. The study will allow scientists to scale

up pancreatic cell production and manufacture trillions of the target cells in a controlled manner.

“Our results demonstrate for the first time that human adult skin cells can be used to efficiently and rapidly generate functional pancreatic cells that behave similar to human beta cells,” said Matthias Hebrok, director of the Diabetes Centre at University of California. “This finding opens up the opportunity for the analysis of patient-specific pancreatic beta cell properties and the optimisation of cell therapy approaches,” said Hebrok.

In the study, the scientists first used pharmaceutical and genetic molecules to reprogramme skin cells into endoderm progenitor cells—early developmental cells that have already been designated to mature into one of a number of different types of organs.

With this method, the cells do not have to be taken all the way back to a pluripotent stem cell state, meaning the scientists can turn them into pancreatic cells faster.

Why Indian youth is afraid of joining a Startup?

Why Indian youth is afraid of joining a Startup?

The urge to become self-sufficient is ingrained in everyone’s mind, in other words, human minds are instinctively drawn to the idea of being independent. The essence of this is to take risks, to think out of the box. Though the idea of a startup is always exciting and bring along tremendous prospects and potentialities, yet the fear of survival is always present in them. This is because often they have to face difficulties which are not anticipated at the time of inception. We can see many fresh graduates from IIT, IIM hesitate to join a startup, as they feel there is no future with these ventures, there is a likelihood of them closing down after 4 or 5 years. As a matter of fact, a liberated thinking is still not common among Indian youth and various reasons can be cited for this.

Job security is the primary reason for many individuals to discard a startup. Not all come from a favorable background and the hard realities of life compel them to restrict their moves. Many of them have a family behind and this is why they look for a settled environment. They can even sacrifice their dream for the safety of their job. Equally, a conventional upbringing is also responsible for this, that teaches you to ‘study well so that you can earn well’, automatically bound people to think that whatever money you have spent on education, it must come back.

Not all Indians are averse to startups. In many instances, you can see a section of the Indian youth do want to go with the flow and join a startup. But, problems arise when they are offered salaries in established industries that are four or five times higher than the startups, they cannot resist temptation. Thus, to a large extent, the decision of joining a startups is all depends on the mindset of an individual, what he expects from a company and how he wants to see himself after 5 years down the line. Those youth who seek high salaries, start-up is a wrong choice for them, such people should go for established companies. However, if you favor a flexible working environment, and will be satisfied with a meager amount, you must join a startup.

Many a time, lack of proper infrastructural amenities let people deviate from startup.  A majority of startups don’t own a proper workstation, some even lack basic amenities, including a conference room. Though these are small things, yet they create a profound impact on the minds of employees. The concept of perks and benefits are usually absent in startups. The reason is that not all of them are independent and they are responsible to the investors about their every move. This dampens the spirit of employees. Equally, lack of leadership qualities is also a reason of the distrust, because, in startups, you won’t get experienced people to learn from to tackle any situation. This can be frustrating sometimes.

Thus, sustainability is the major issue that is preventing Indians to welcome startups with open hearts. However as Modi government is making a strong urge to adopt this startup culture, it is likely that the traditional mindset of Indian youth will soon undergo a change.


Selecting the Best IAS Preparation Books

Selecting the Best IAS Preparation Books


The selection process of IAS Preparation Books is not a very easy task and It takes lots of efforts and experience for the selection. It is the game-changing movement in any Civil service aspirants because the books are only the thing which will help the UPSC aspirants to get into Civil Services of the country. We all know that Clearing the Union Public Service Examinations (CSE) is not an easy task but also not hard as rocket Science. Getting into UPSC is not a cup of tea but do not think we are demotivating you. With proper strategy and planning of Civil service Examination, you can easily crack the UPSC exam in very less time.


Which Books is good for you in UPSC Examinations?

We all know that there are lots of books available in marketing and which can be purchased from various sources like Online and Offline stores. But when you go to purchase the Books, People get Worried about the selecting the Best book for UPSC because the choice is very vast. Students and aspirants get confuse with the books listed in various online websites and also the books for UPSC are not a single book but the aspirants have to purchase the complete study material or IAS Preparation Books.


Cost of Books for preparing civil service Examinations


The cost of preparation depends on the aspirants of UPSC because the cost varies from location to location and also the student who is getting the study material. Many aspirants and Candidates of UPSC go for coaching classes and the study material or the IAS Preparation Books are given buy the Coaching classes only because they pay the heavy Fees. But the students who do self-preparation of UPSC examinations, Have to purchase Study Material from any store (Online or Offline). The cost of Books for IAS is between the ranges of Rs.  5000 To Rs. 20000 depends on upon the quality of the content and how the Popularity of the Books is there in UPSC Eco system of Study material.



Importance of High School for IAS Exam

Importance of High School

There are certain milestones in your life that you would like to preserve for years to come. The senior year of high school is one of those times. There are many wonderful events that happen during this time period some of which are a really big deal and some are not as important. All seniors look forward to graduating from high school and the many parties to attend celebrating this special event in their lives. Many students, particularly females enjoy having their senior pictures taken. It is a time when you can choose an outfit or many outfits, get your hair and makeup done to look your best for the photographs. Selecting the right Cincinnati Photography studio is necessary to capture the perfect photo. This time can also be very difficult for many students having to decide what they want to do with their lives after high school graduation such as choosing a college, maintaining your grade point average among many other things. There are counselors to help you make some important decisions such as college planning and graduation.

High school events may not seem as important but it is very important to choose a wise school before deciding for IAS exam at this very moment, but when you look back in time it will be those moments that you always remember. A yearbook is great collection of senior memories. Academic achievements, athletic competitions, proms, theater, etc. are moments in your history that you will want to stand out, as will graduation. Being a senior is a huge responsibility, you are a role model to underclassmen as well as anyone that looks up to you.

The high school years goes very quickly so make sure you make the best of it. You can do this by making sure that you receive the best education, establish good friendships, and have a good yet responsible time. If you do not get the best grades that you possibly can, you will have a hard time getting into college. Colleges cannot see what you are capable of; they only see what you have shown you can do in previous years. It is best if the best you can do and what you have done are the same.

High school friendships and relationships may seem unimportant. Even though it may seem this way, these relationships can be the best of your life. They are the ones that will stay with you forever. You will always remember the people you meet in school. High School is one of the most influential times of your life. There is no reason not to make the best of it.

It does not matter how big the event is, it will stay with you forever. Senior year is the last year of your schooling where you do not have to worry about other stresses of life. Once you get into college you have no one to rely on besides yourself. If you fail in high school people will be there to help you try again, in college you do not have that kind of support. That is why living your high school career to the fullest is a great idea. The little experiences count almost as much as the bigger ones do.


Avalanche Strikes Army Post In Siachen, 10 Army men Killed – June 2016 Current Affairs



A major avalanche struck an Indian Army post in the Northern Siachen Glacier area on February 3, 2016. The army post that bore its brunt was manned by one junior commissioned officer (JCO) and nine soldiers. The 10 soldiers from the Madras Regiment were deployed at the section-level post at an altitude of 19,600 feet on the Northern Glacier when the freak accident took place. The rescue operation, with specialised teams and Cheetah, Dhruv and Mi-17 helicopters of the Army and IAF deployed from Siachen base camp as well as Leh and Thoise, was launched as swiftly as possible. But all ten soldiers who were hit by a massive avalanche at Siachen were declared dead by the Army. Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi mourned the demise of the soldiers and offered condolences to their families.

The Northern Glacier has some of the most treacherous terrains in the forbidding heights of the region, which go up to almost 22,000 feet at the famous Bana post held by the Indian troops. Over 900 Indian soldiers have died in the region since April 1984 when India’s ‘Operation Meghdoot’ pre¬empted Pakistan’s ‘Operation Ababeel’ to occupy the heights by a whisker. Around three-fourths of the casualties have been caused by the severe climatic conditions, with temperatures sometimes even dipping to minus 60 degree Celsius. India has stopped haemorrhaging at the glacial heights like it used to in earlier years with better infrastructure and logistics in place.

The erstwhile firing duels along the 110-km Actual Ground Position Line (the un-delineated stretch between the last marked grid reference point NJ-9842 on the Line of Control and the Karakoram Pass) in the region have also become negligible after the ceasefire with Pakistan in 2003. But avalanches, “white-outs”, blizzards and accidents continue to take a toll, with soldiers also having to constantly battle high-altitude pulmonary oedema, cerebral oedema, hypothermia, hypoxia and frostbite. Around 3,000 Indian soldiers are deployed in the northern, central and southern glaciers in the region.

India has been steadfast that Pakistan needs to provide ironclad guarantees and foolproof authentication of troop positions before any disengagement and final demilitarisation of the icy heights. This is based on the Indian Army’s position that if Pakistani troops occupy the heights vacated by it, dislodging them would be virtually impossible. Indian soldiers deployed on the Saltoro Ridge effectively prevent Pakistan from the west and China from the east joining up through the Karakoram Pass to threaten Ladakh. China, as it is, is expanding its footprint in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.

Spiritual places to visit IN BENGAL

Spiritual places to visit IN BENGAL



BEING one of the most ancient civilisations of the world, India has been in contact with almost all the major religions of the world, and despite being dominated by Hinduism in the present context, religions like Islam, Bud¬dhism and Christianity have also influenced a sizeable portion of the population, apart from niche religions like Sikhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Jewism that grew as an offshoot to the major reli¬gious schools of thought.
West Bengal is a state which accepts many re¬ligions. One can find many spiritual places in the state. These spiritual places are visited by pilgrims
as well as tourists to experience the divine and the marvellous. These places have an intense his¬tory of religion in the state.
West Bengal has several of the ’52 Shak- tipeethf strewn across the country, it has some of the most revered temples, mosques, churches and gurdwaras which are visited by pilgrims from world over. Some of the most revered religious spots of the state are enumerated below:


Belur Math

Originally conceived by Swami Vivekananda, this temple (16 Km from Kolkata) enshrines the sa¬
cred relics of Sri Ramakrishna. Architecturally, this temple has an important place among the modem temples of India. It incorporates the motifs of var¬ious religions, thus symbolising the harmony of religions taught by Sri Ramakrishna. Belur Math serves as the headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission
Pareshnath Jain Temple «}
Pareshnath Jain temple is a very famous temple of Kolkata that was built by an art connoisseur named Ray Badridas Bahadur in 1867. Located in the northeast side of the city, Calcutta Pareshnath Jain temple is a mind-blowing place of worship, the beauty of which is enhanced by mirrors and coloured stones.
Kalighat Temple
Kalighat is regarded as one of the 52 Shaktipeeths of India, where the various parts of Sati’s body are said to have fallen, in the course of Shiva’s Rudra Tandava. Kalighat represents the site where the toes of the rightfoot of Shakti or Sati fell.
Nakhoda Mosque i
The Nakhoda Mosque is an important place of worship for the Muslims. It is located in Jacquaria Street, near the junction of Chitpore Road, and Mahatma Gandhi Road, Kolkata. Abdat Rahim Osman, a resident of Cutch, founded the mosque in 1926. A board of trustees governs the mosque

St.Paul’s Cathedra!
St.Paul’s Cathedral, built between 1839 and 1847, is one of India’s most important churches, it’s located at east of the Victoria Memorial at the southern end of the Maidan. Its steeple fell during an earthquake in 1897 and was redesigned and rebuilt. Inside there are some interesting memori¬als and stained glass, including the west window by Sir Edward Burne-Jones.

St. Andrews Church
Opened to the public in 1818, this Presbyterian church of the Church of Scotland occupies the site of the old Mayor’s Court and the Supreme court of Calcutta (1726-92). It was built under the supervi¬sion of Maria Imhoff, wife of Marquess of Hast¬ings. The church stands symmetrically on die axis of the Old Court House Street and acts as focus in street scape.The church stands white and digni¬fied and its north and south sides are portions with Doric Pillars and triglyph friezes. Although these are similar to St. John’s Church, the steeple is a more successful adoption of Gibb’s original prototype.
Sri Mayapur is a sublimely beautiful village on the sacred bank of river Ganga, lovingly known as mother Ganga. Situated around 130 km north of Kolkata, it is the headquarters of ISKCON (Interna-tional Society for Krishna Consciousness) or the Hare Krishna movement. It is the birthplace of Sri. Krishna Chaitanya, who appeared in the 14th century, as an incarnation of Lord Krishna.
He is the one who started the Hare Krishna movement. He was the first to teach widespread mass chanting and singing of the Hare Krishna mantra. Mayapur is one of the most sacred and peaceful places in all o” India. Lakhs of pilgrims from the country and abroad visit Mayapur an-nually in search of peace and solace.

Furfura Sharif (also known as Furfura, Phur- phura) is a village in the Jangipara community development block of Srirampore subdivision in the Hooghly district. It is a holy place for Muslims. The mosque built by Muqlish Khan in 1375 is a site for Muslim pilgrimage, especially during the Pir’s mela (fair). It attracts a large number of pil-grims during the Urs festival.
Muslims in the area are believed to be chiefly Ashrafs and are said to be descendants of Muslims who invaded Bengal in the 14th century. There is a tradition that the Bagdi king who ruled here was defeated by Hazrat Shah Kabir Halibi and Hazrat Karamuddin, both of whom were killed in the battle.Their tombs are revered to this day by both Hindus and Muslims.
The most important place within Furfura Sharif is the Mazaar Sharif (Tomb) of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique(Rh) and his five sons, popularly
known as the ‘Panch Huzur Keblah’. Thousands of people from all over India come to visit their tombs every year.
Besides these, there are innumerable impor-tant temples, churches and mosques in the state. Prominent among them are Tarapith Temple of Goddess Tara Ma in Birbhum district, Madan Mo-han Temple at Cooch Behar,Tipu Sultan Mosque in Kolkata, Bandel Church in Hooghly district and others.
The Divine Dip
Most of the year the place is one of the most serene spots you can think of: windblown, ab-solutely quiet, with sweeping views of the mighty Ganga ending its journey into the sea, a lovely is-land they call -Sagardweep. But come mid-Janu¬ary (the last day of the month of Paus as per the Bengali calendar), divinity seems to descend from the blue sky overhead on to the waters and the beach at Sagardweep. Millions of pilgrims and devotees from all over India come to take a dip in the freezing waters here to cleanse all sins away and offer worship at the temple of Kapil Muni. A huge colourful fairtakes place to commemorate this occasion, aptly named ‘Sagar Mela’, which is held once a year during Makar Sankranti. ACCOMMODATION: YOU have a choice of tourist hostels, cottages, tents, youth hostels etc.


To come to ‘Sagar’ take a bus from Kolkata to Lot 8/Harwood Point, cross on the ferry and board another bus to Sagar.




There Is No Single Formula For Success
In Life Or In The CSE. Be Focussed, Have
Confidence And Work Really Hard.

And one day your dreams will come true

—Parth Gupta, IAS Topper2013 (59th Position)




My interview was scheduled in the morning session. I wore a formal blue suit with a striped shirt and a blue tie.

I reached the UPSC and was told that my interview was with Prof. Purshottam Agarwal Board.

Parth Gupta : May I come in, Sir ?

Chairman : Yes.

Parth Gupta : Good Afternoon, Sirs.

Chairman : Good Afternoon. Please take a seat.

Parth Gupta : Thank You, Sir (sitting).

Chairman : So what is the meaning of Pali ?

Parth Gupta : Pali has several meanings. It means the teaching of Lord Buddha.

Chairman : No. Tell another one ?

Parth Gupta : It also means or a line.

Chairman : No. Tell another ?

Parth Gupta : It is the language that contains Buddha’s teachings.

Chairman : No. Do you know Bengali ?

Parth Gupta : No, Sir.

Chairman : But you are from Jharkhand and should know Bengali as it borders West Bengal. OK, do

you know about ………..  (some Bengali


Parth Gupta : No, Sir.

Chairman : He wrote a book Ntwi iPTR’. Now tell the meaning of TRvT.

Parth Gupta : Sir, it means ^5 ml

Chairman : No, it means (m»si ■hhm. Now tell the meaning of Pali.

Parth Gupta : Isas ^ HTHTI

Chairman : No. (He gives some other hut similar sounding meaning.)

Chairman : Do you know history ?

Parth Gupta : Yes, Sir.

Chairman : Who was Laxmibai ?

Parth Gupta : Rani Laxmibai was a freedom fighter and fought the British in the battle of 1857.

Chairman : What was-her mother tongue ?

Parth Gupta : I don’t know, Sir.

Chairman : Shouldn’t it be Hindi as she belonged to UP region.

Parth Gupta : I don’t know, Sir.

Chairman : OK. I will give you a hint. Her mother tongue was not Hindi. Now tell me what her mother tongue was.

Parth Gupta : I am unable to answer, Sir.

Chairman : Tell me about the 42nd Amendment.

Parth Gupta : It is called a mini Constitution and was proposed by Sardar Swaran Singh Committee. It introduced socialist, secular in the Preamble.

Chairman : What is difference between fusion and fission ?

Parth Gupta : Fusion is when smaller nuclei fuse to form bigger ones. Fission is when heavier nuclei disintegrate. Both release energy.

Chairman : Which is better ?

Parth Gupta : Fusion is still under development. But if realised, it is better.

Chairman : What is criterion for setting up a nuclear plant ?

Parth Gupta : Ecological and human impact. Along with safety features like seismic activity-free zone.

Chairman : But these parameters have been compromised in the plant being set up in Haryana ?

Parth Gupta : Well, Sir, in the light of what you have said I think there could have been a better choice for the plant.

Chairman : What do you think about federalism ?

Parth Gupta: It was a necessity, given the diversity of India. Critical issues have been dealt with in a centralised manner while giving sufficient autonomy to the States.

2nd Member : Do States have enough autonomy in financial matters ?

Parth Gupta: Yes Sir. The need is to utilise this autonomy responsibly. The States should refrain from populist measures.

2nd Member : Is Right to Food a populist measure ?

Parth Gupta : No Sir. When there are millions of people going hungry, children who are malnourished, then it is even mote important to give them Right to Food.

2nd Member : Do you think that diversity will pose a problem to unity ? And what should be done ?


Parth Gupta : Diversity may prove to be a weakness, but it is also a strength. No circumstance should be created so that people feel disenchanted with the nation. Every category or section needs to be taken at the same speed and together to avoid any problem to the unity of India.

3rd Member : Do you support so many IITs ?

Parth Gupta: No, Sir. New IITs are lacking basic infrastructure. The pressing need is to create and raise the standard of higher education sector and creating a handful of IITs will not solve it.

3rd Member : Why did you take Pali?

Parth Gupta : I had studied Sanskrit in school. So I felt comfortable studying Pali.



Destinations in the Himalayas

Destinations in the Himalayas





DARJEELING, at an altitude of 7,000 feet makes for an ideal weekend destination from Kolkata. Direct flights from Kolkata to Bagdogra airport, just 100 kilometres away from Darjeeling, and good taxi services enable the visitor to get to Darjeeling fast.

Darjeeling rose to prominence during the British Raj when it was developed as a major rest and recreation centre. Until the 19th cen­tury, Darjeeling (derived from Dorje Ling, the place of the thunderbolt) was part of Sikkim. In 1817, Sikkim conceded the rights to use the place as a health sanitarium to the British after they helped to settle a rather disastrous dispute between Sikkim and Nepal.

Darjeeling is famous for its magnificent moun­tain vistas one can see the mighty Everest, the world’s highest peak as well as many other mountains such as KanchendzongarLhotse and Makalu. It is, in fact, a tradition while visiting Darjeeling to go to the Tiger Hill before day­
break to see the first rays of the sun strike the mountains. Another tradition is to spend a few hours every day taking in the air at the Chowrasta (crossroads), the promenade at the centre of the town.

Other places to see include the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute whose first director was Sherpa Tenzing Norgay who had con­quered Mount Everest along with Sir Edmund Hilary; Darjeeling Zoo, which houses tigers, bears, wolves and the rare snow leopards; The Tibetan Self-help Centre, where one can watch the Tibetan refugees create wonderful handi­craft items for sale; the Botanical Gardens with its collection of alpine plants, orchids and ferns; the Bhutia Basti where the Bhutia community is settled with its beautiful monastery; and the bustling bazaar on the Hill Cart Road.


Situated on the lower ranges of the Himalayas, Kalimpong offers panoramic vistas of theTeesta


Rangit Valley in Sikkin^ It is situated on the northern part of Bengal. It is about 53 km from the hill station of Darjeeling.

Kalimpong was added to a district of Darjeeling in 1866. In 1866-1867 an Anglo-Bhutanese commission demarcated the common bound­aries between the two, thereby giving shape to the Kalimpong subdivision.


Situated at an altitude of 1458 ms (4860ft.), Kurseong is 51 km from Siliguri and 30 km from Darjeeling. The word Kurseong means – the place of White Orchid, because of its lower elevation, Kurseong, the third of the three hilly sub-divisions enjoys milder and very healthy cli­mate throughout the year.

It is the peace, serenity and the healthy cli­mate that attracted thousands of tourists and many a great person to this place. Some of the famous poems and songs of Guru Rabindranath Tagore were composed in Kurseong.


Kolakham, a paradise for bird lovers and adven­ture seeking tourists, is located near the Neora Valley National Park just 108 km from Siliguri via Kalimpong amidst natural forest surround­ings and facing the mighty Mt. Kanchenjunga. One can enjoy the beautiful range of snow peaks, the never ending green forest and a vari­ety of birds from this hill-destination.

This tourist destination offers a wide range of adventure tourism options like trekking, rock climbing, rope traversing etc. to make the stay of the guests a memorable one. In addition, guests can enjoy jungle safari at Neora Valley.


Lepchajagat is a small village located in wilder­ness at an altitude of 6,956 ft (i.e. 2123 metres) : and only 19kms away from Darjeeling town. Al­thoughit’s quite dose to Darjeeling’s main hub and takes only about 45 minutes by taxi, it has a world of its own. If you are a nature lover or looking for a romantic stay for a couple of days, then Lepchajagat is the place for you. Many tourists actually combine a short stay in Lep­chajagat with their visits to Darjeeling just to blend the vacation with an offbeat stay amidst nature.

As the name suggests, it once used to be a hamlet of the Lepcha tribes. The word 1 Jagat’